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31 Mar 2021

Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM): A metabolic disorder

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Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex, chronic disease of glucose metabolism that eventually can adversely affect the functions of vital organs of the human body and responsible for millions of fatalities every year globally. According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF)[1], the number of global diabetic patients in 2019 was estimated to be 463 million, which will increase to 578 million by 2030 and 700 million by 2045. 

  1. Unregulated gluconeogenesis in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus results in increased hepatic glucose output that engenders fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia.
  2. Hepatic glucose production (HGP) is majorly governed by a gluconeogenesis pathway, and insulin suppresses it when blood glucose levels are high in normal physiology. Insulin resistance is a hallmark of T2DM resulting in unchecked HGP, and it is a major reason for high fasting and postprandial glucose levels in T2DM. 

At present, the drugs widely applied in the clinical treatment of T2DM mainly include insulin, non-insulin oral hypoglycemic drugs, insulin analogs, and genetic drugs.

  • There are wide varieties of non-insulin oral hypoglycemic drugs and several strategies are available in the market to control T2DM including
  • sulfonylurea, biguanide,  
  • thiazolidinedione and glinide,
  • SGLT2 inhibitors, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors,
  • glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, and painful insulin injections.  

 

  1. sulfonylurea, biguanide,  
  2. sulfonylurea, biguanide,  
  3. sulfonylurea, biguanide,  
  • sulfonylurea, biguanide,  
  • sulfonylurea, biguanide,  
  • sulfonylurea, biguanide,  

Though various antidiabetic drugs are flooding into the market and widely applied to T2DM management. Complete and successful cures of T2DM still remain untouched because of several intrinsic deficiencies and adverse effects of these [2] drugs.

References

  1. ^ https://idf.org/
  2. ^ https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/diabetes

 

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Editor CoAxial

Good article

11 Mar
Question and Answers

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Causes of T2DM?

Asked By Editor CoAxial on 11 Mar Answer this question

Best Answer   Moderator's Choice

Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex, chronic disease of glucose metabolism that eventually can adversely affect the functions of vital organs of the human body and responsible for millions of fatalities every year globally.

Answered By Editor CoAxial on 13 Mar

Unregulated gluconeogenesis in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus results in increased hepatic glucose output that engender fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia. Hepatic glucose production (HGP) is majorly governed by a gluconeogenesis pathway, and insulin suppresses it when blood glucose levels are high in a normal physiology. Insulin resistance is a hallmark of T2DM resulting unchecked HGP, and it is a major reason for high fasting and postprandial glucose levels in T2DM. 

[ ]
Answered By Editor CoAxial on 11 Mar

Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex, chronic disease of glucose metabolism which eventually can adversely affect the functions of vital organs of the human body and responsible for millions of fatalities every year globally.

Answered By CoAxial User1 on 13 Mar

Give statistic of T2DM

Asked By CoAxial User1 on 13 Mar Answer this question

Best Answer   Moderator's Choice

According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF)[1], the number of global diabetic patients in 2019 was estimated to be 463 million, which will increase to 578 million by 2030 and 700 million by 2045.

Answered By Editor CoAxial on 13 Mar
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